Bacteriophages: Species and purpose
Phagolysis - the process of destruction by phages of bacteria,usually occurs in the affected organ during spontaneous recovery. In the event that self-healing does not come, the body can be helped by the introduction of an appropriate bacteriophage obtained under the conditions of a pharmaceutical enterprise. Bacteriophages are called bacterial viruses that, when encountered with microbial cells sensitive to them, penetrate inside and cause their dissolution (lysis).
Translated from the Greek bacteriophage means"A devourer of bacteria." In nature, these microorganisms are very diverse and constitute the largest known group of viruses to date. Phages have a structure different from viruses of plants, animals and humans, more complex. They are found in atmospheric precipitation, in air, in soil, in food, on objects, skin, animal hair, in short, wherever bacteria occur.
In recent years, interest inbacteriophages, used as an alternative to antibiotics. And this is not surprising, and both drugs directly affect the pathogens of infections. However, antibiotics, as is known, are destructive not only to the pathogenic flora, but also to the beneficial. Bacteriophages, the species of which are different, act selectively, only on "their" bacteria, leaving fragments from it. Actually, that's why scientists did not come up with names for them, because it's easier to name them according to the bacteria they affect.
They produce streptococcal, coli-protein, klebsiellezny, staphylococcal, pseudomonasal, salmonella, dysentery, typhoid bacteriophages, as well as Intestifag and Piobakteriofag.
The activity of drugs is determined by the degree of theirThe dilution, at which the lysis of a sensitive culture occurs. Thus, titer 10 in the 6th degree means that this bacteriophage exhibits lytic properties at a dilution of 1,000,000 times. At a temperature of 4-6 C, the drugs retain their properties up to 12 years.
Depending on the type of output, thebacteriophage activity. Types of drugs can affect both individual pathogens, and several at once. Monophages affect several strains of a single bacterium. To complex preparations (polyvalent) include the bacteriophage "Sextafag", which simultaneously can suppress the activity of staphylococci, streptococci, including enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella. In addition, there is an "intestifag", intended for the treatment of intestinal infections, it includes salmonella, typhoid, dysentery, proteus, coli and streptococcal (enterococcus) phage.
Use drugs for dysbacteriosis, intestinalinfections, inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system and bronchopulmonary apparatus, for the treatment of purulent-septic processes, as well as for diseases of the oral cavity and sinuses of the nose. They are used both inward, including in the form of enemas, and locally - for rinses, rinses, syringings. For example, "Bacteriophage klebsiella polyvalent purified", intended for the treatment of oes, rhinoscleroma, infections caused by the bacterium Klebsiella pneumonia, is used inhalation in the lesions of the trachea, larynx and pharynx, tyurundum moistened in liquid is administered, with otitis, used for washing with sinusitis. With cystitis, enterocolitis, urethritis, pneumonia, the drug is taken orally.
Bacteriophages have a lot of advantages overantibiotics. They do not have side effects, they are prescribed even for newborns and pregnant women, they are not addictive. They can be combined with any medicines, and also used to prevent infectious diseases. These drugs have a beneficial effect on the formation of immunity, do not suppress natural flora, their effect is manifested within 2-4 hours after administration. To them, the resistance of pathogenic microorganisms does not develop.
Bacteriophages have one drawback. Their types, used today in medicine, are still few, which limits their use in many infections.
Perspectives of application
In order to successfully use biologics,it is necessary to determine the sensitivity of bacteria to them. However, scientists noticed an interesting regularity: the sensitivity of microorganisms to phages does not decrease, but on the contrary, it increases, which is explained by the enrichment of preparations with new cultures. To date, the bacteriophage staphylococcus successfully lyses up to 90% of all strains of these bacteria isolated from purulent-septic lesions.
Many infectious disease specialists believe that phage therapysoon will make a revolution in the fight against diseases. Immunologists see the prospect of using these drugs where immunotherapy is powerless. According to the data of analytical studies, phage production will become one of the most promising directions of pharmacology in the next few years.