Sugar 5.5 in the blood - is it much? The norm of blood sugar in a healthy person
Biochemical parameters of blood are variable andare fickle. One of the main criteria for such an analysis is glucose. And quite often the question arises: "Sugar 5.5 - is it much or little?" It is necessary to understand.
What is blood sugar?
Under blood sugar all doctors and laboratory workers usually mean glucose.
This connection is quite important fornormal functioning of our body. Glucose is used by most cells of our body. The main tissues that utilize this substance are the nervous and muscular.
Cells of the brain use it for the flow of most energy processes. Due to a sufficient amount of glucose, the work of the brain is accelerated, the mood rises.
Muscle tissue uses sugar as the mainsource of energy. Glucose refers to carbohydrates, the cleavage of which is an energetically beneficial process, so a better source of energy for the muscles can not come up.
Normally, the minimum amount of glucoseis 3.3 g / l. Reduction of this amount allows to judge hypoglycemia (lack of sugar in the blood). Sugar 5.5 is the upper limit of the norm (according to the latest data, the norm has slightly increased to 6.2).
With its excess, the deposition of sugar in the muscle and nerve tissues, which leads to the development of tissue damage and systemic disorders.
Where does glucose come from? How does it appear in our body and which functions?
Ways of formation of glucose
As mentioned above, glucose is the sourceenergy for many tissues and cells. Its formation can proceed from both amino acids and through biosynthesis from triglycerides (the simplest fat molecules).
The main source of glucose for the body is food. It is with it that most of the sugar used for metabolism falls. Part of it is transported to cells and organs, and the residue is usually deposited in the liver in the form of glycogen, a complex carbohydrate compound.
The level of glucose in the blood is controlled by two hormones - insulin and glucagon.
Insulin helps reduce the amount of sugarblood and its greater deposition in the liver. The insulin hyperactivity and its increased quantity can be judged (indirectly) if after a meal the patient begins to feel hunger rather soon. The desire to eat usually means that blood sugar has fallen and should be restored.
Glucagon, on the contrary, stimulates the cleavage of glycogen and increases the concentration of sugar in the plasma.
The disruption of these hormones usually leads to the development of metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypo - and hyperglycemic coma).
Why can its number increase and what consequences do the body expect as a result of this increase?
Increase in the amount of glucose in the blood
It is generally accepted that sugar 5.5 is the upper limit of the norm. Why can it increase?
To increase the level of sugar in the blood can lead to the following conditions:
- Diseases of the liver.
- Significant blood loss (relative increase in sugar due to a decrease in blood volume).
- Tumors of the pancreas.
Each of these states passes with its ownspecific clinical picture and the reasons for each of them are different. Sugar, 5.5 g / l of which was a normal indicator for this person, gradually begins to grow. With its growth, there are various changes in the human body.
The main goal of the doctor is timelydetection of a similar increase in blood glucose levels, determining the cause of this increase and the appointment of appropriate treatment. For example, a blood test showed that sugar is 5.5. What can this concentration say about it in the blood?
It is necessary to disassemble the basic conditions that can meet the doctor.
As a result of the development of diabetes, there is a significant increase in the concentration of sugar in the blood (the diagnosis is made when the sugar is detected above 11.1 g / l).
In the pathogenesis of the disease is absolute (type 1 diabetes) or relative (type 2 diabetes) insulin resistance.
In the first case, this means that insulin inThere is no blood (the main cause is pancreatitis). Glucose can not be properly disposed of, its deposition occurs in tissues and organs and corresponding complications develop (nephropathy, retinopathy, diabetic foot).
In the second case, there is insulin in the blood, but for some reason it can not react with the existing glucose.
In such patients, blood sugar is elevated constantly, and they are forced to be on constant treatment with either hypoglycemic drugs or insulin.
Sugar 5.5 for diabetes is a dream for almost every patient. The determination of such figures in the patient's blood speaks about the favorable course of diabetes and the effectiveness of the treatment used.
This disease is pandemic andoccurs in representatives of different races. The problem of his treatment and study are specialists of many specialties, as diabetes affects all organ systems.
Often, pregnancy can lead to the development ofvarious conditions and diseases. This is due to both a physiological decline in immunity (for fetal development) and a change in many metabolic reactions.
Sugar 5.5 during pregnancy is usuallyindicator of the norm. Some endocrinologists can be regarded as somewhat reduced (as the development of a small organism proceeds, and the mother has to share glucose and with it).
In some cases, the development of sugardiabetes of pregnant women (gestational diabetes). It occurs when a pregnancy develops a disease that disappears after childbirth. Sugar 5.5 in pregnancy in the case of gestational diabetes is diagnosed on an empty stomach, in the morning determination of a blood test. After eating, its amount can increase to 10 and 11, but when using adequate sugar regulating therapy, its level again decreases.
Usually the condition itself stabilizes immediately after childbirth or in the early postpartum period. About a week the glucose level indicators come back to normal.
If there was diabetes earlier, it is classified as secondary, requiring the use of sugar-lowering drugs or additional doses of insulin.
Before planning pregnancy should beconsult with a therapist and gynecologist, as in some cases diabetes is an absolute contraindication to conception. The danger can be for the developing fetus, as well as for the mother.
The treatment of such patients should also be coordinated with the gynecologist and therapist to determine the risk of the effects of drugs on the fetus.
The more dangerous the increase in the concentration of sugar in the blood.
As mentioned above, sugar is normal at 5.5. The symptom of diabetes is its increase above 11, or the appearance of the following symptoms.
First of all, an increase in the concentration of sugar inblood lead to the development of microangiopathy. This condition is characterized by a decrease in blood circulation in small vessels, a disturbance in the supply of tissues, the development of their atrophy, and the accumulation of metabolic products in the tissues, which leads to their destruction. On the site of the vessels appear small ulceration, foci of maceration. Most often, small vessels of the feet suffer.
The deposition of sugar in the vessels of the eye contributes to the development of retinopathy. In this case, vision deteriorates to the point of complete blindness. In some cases, there may be a development of glaucoma and cataracts.
If there is a significant deposition of sugar inrenal tubules, then diabetic nephropathy can occur. The kidney function is impaired, which leads to the development of their insufficiency. With the progression of diabetes, their complete "disconnection" is possible.
The most frequent complication of sugar increase inblood is a coma. With it, the blood flow through the vessels of the brain worsens, because of which the patient loses consciousness. The development of a coma may be accompanied by the odor of acetone from the mouth, tachycardia and shortness of breath (they usually appear in the coma precursor stage). All reflexes of the patient are broken, the pupil reacts weakly to light.
All these complications over time can lead to severe impairment of the functions of other organs.
The risk of developing diabetes in children
Sugar 5.5 in the blood is normal for the child's body. It is assumed that a single increase in glucose is not regarded as pathological, since many children like sweet. If, as a result of an infectious disease, the child has a picture of hyperglycemia in the blood, then the development of type 1 diabetes should be suspected.
Sugar 5.5 in the blood of children with type 1 diabetes is rare. The minimum figures for this pathology are 20-30 g / l.
Disease is dangerous because it developsit is lightning fast; however, such a course is usually preceded by a prodromal period, during which digestion is disturbed, and the feces change. It is necessary to have a transferred infection in recent times.
The risk of diabetes in children is in its course, a sharp deterioration in the state and developmental disorders. In severe cases, especially with the development of coma, a lethal outcome is possible.
Therapy is carried out under the control of the endocrinologist andaccompanied by the mandatory delivery of tests. Such indicator, as sugar 5.5 in the blood of the child, indicates a correct selection of drugs and a positive reaction to the therapy.
Is there any difference between the concentration of blood sugar in men and women?
All the doctors claim that the sugar is 5.5 in the bloodwomen, as well as in men, is an indicator of the norm. However, this standard has been studied and developed by the World Health Organization. During its detection one important factor was not taken into account: physical labor. Men are much more likely to be employed at work that requires physical effort. To do this, their muscles need a lot of energy.
As mentioned, glucose is excellentenergy substratum. That is why blood sugar 5.5 in men can be regarded as normal, but not the maximum. And for this very reason, as well as as a result of the use of some other reagents, an increase in the maximum normal blood sugar index to 6.2 is now observed.
Disrupted tolerance to sugar
In modern endocrinology there is a concept"Impaired glucose tolerance". It is applicable in the case when in several blood tests the sugar content is detected, the level of which will be higher than the accepted values of the norm, and less than necessary for the establishment of diabetes mellitus.
How is this research conducted?
In the morning, on an empty stomach, the patient is measured by the sugar level. After that, the patient drinks sugar syrup (75 g of sugar or glucose per 100 ml of water). After that, every half hour, the glucose level is determined.
For example, as a result of the test, it was found that in two hours after the glucose load, the sugar was 5.5. What does this indicator mean?
Getting such a level of sugar suggests that,that the pancreas has developed a sufficient amount of insulin to split the incoming sugar, ie, the glucose tolerance test did not reveal any abnormalities.
If there was a sharp increasethe concentration of glucose (for example, after half an hour its level was 7, and after two hours - 10.5), then one can judge the impaired glucose tolerance, which can be regarded as a prerequisite for diabetes mellitus.
Treatment for impaired tolerance is carried out with the same drugs as diabetes (with the exception of insulin, which is prescribed according to strict indications).
What to do with increased sugar?
Usually, patients feel if there is an increase in the level of sugar in their blood plasma. This is manifested by increased thirst, dry skin, frequent walking to the toilet.
When such a clinical picture appears, you should first consult a doctor for a more detailed examination.
For example, at the time of the request (provided thatthe patient turned hungry, on an empty stomach), after giving the tests, sugar was determined 5.5. This is a lot, in the morning there should be a reduced level of glucose. It is already possible to suspect some problems with the pancreas and the absorption of sugar.
If in repeated analyzes the glucose was within the normal range, and its level did not exceed the maximum figures of the norm, then one should not worry - there is no diabetes.
In the case when increased sugar was detected in the repeated analyzes, it is already possible to think about a more difficult process.
Here an important role will be played by the collection of anamnesis - the patient's age, his genetics, the presence of infectious diseases.
If the patient is 40 years old, heredity is notweighed down, but recently there was a disease, then we can judge the development of juvenile diabetes. If the age exceeds 40, there are chronic diseases of other systems and organs, and the parents of the patient had diabetes, then most likely the patient developed type 2 diabetes.
In any of the above cases, it is necessary toprescribe a sugar regulating maintenance therapy. With properly selected dosages, as well as diet compliance, patients often experience positive results in treatment.